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London years personals. Kota Kinabalu years personals. Linda Ts Stockholm years personals. Nottingham years personals. Sexy Linda London years personals. Cannes years personals. Definitive diagnosis relies on a blood test for alcohol, usually performed as part of a toxicology screen. Law enforcement officers in the United States and other countries often use breathalyzer units and field sobriety tests as more convenient and rapid alternatives to blood tests. Because these may have varying reliability and may produce different results than the tests used for law-enforcement purposes, the results from such devices should be conservatively interpreted.
Many informal intoxication tests exist, which, in general, are unreliable and not recommended as deterrents to excessive intoxication or as indicators of the safety of activities such as motor vehicle driving, heavy equipment operation, machine tool use, etc. For determining whether someone is intoxicated by alcohol by some means other than a blood-alcohol test, it is necessary to rule out other conditions such as hypoglycemia , stroke , usage of other intoxicants, mental health issues, and so on.
Several well-known criteria can be used to establish a probable diagnosis. For a physician in the acute-treatment setting, acute alcohol intoxication can mimic other acute neurological disorders, or is frequently combined with other recreational drugs that complicate diagnosis and treatment. Acute alcohol poisoning is a medical emergency due to the risk of death from respiratory depression or aspiration of vomit if vomiting occurs while the person is unresponsive.
Emergency treatment strives to stabilize and maintain an open airway and sufficient breathing, while waiting for the alcohol to metabolize. This can be done by removal of any vomitus or, if the person is unconscious or has impaired gag reflex, intubation of the trachea. Additional medication may be indicated for treatment of nausea , tremor , and anxiety. A normal liver detoxifies the blood of alcohol over a period of time that depends on the initial level and the patient's overall physical condition.
An abnormal liver will take longer but still succeeds, provided the alcohol does not cause liver failure. People having drunk heavily for several days or weeks may have withdrawal symptoms after the acute intoxication has subsided. A person consuming a dangerous amount of alcohol persistently can develop memory blackouts and idiosyncratic intoxication or pathological drunkenness symptoms.
Long-term persistent consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol can cause liver damage and have other deleterious health effects. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor in some cases of catastrophic injury , in particular for unsupervised recreational activity. A study in the province of Ontario based on epidemiological data from , , , and states that Laws on drunkenness vary. In the United States, it is a criminal offense for a person to be drunk while driving a motorized vehicle , except in Wisconsin , where it is only a fine for the first offense.
In some countries, it is also an offense to serve alcohol to an already-intoxicated person,  and, often, alcohol can be sold only by persons qualified to serve responsibly through alcohol server training. The blood alcohol content BAC for legal operation of a vehicle is typically measured as a percentage of a unit volume of blood. This percentage ranges from 0. In the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, public intoxication is a crime also known as "being drunk and disorderly" or "being drunk and incapable".
In some countries, there are special facilities, sometimes known as " drunk tanks ", for the temporary detention of persons found to be drunk. Some religious groups permit the consumption of alcohol.
Some permit consumption but prohibit intoxication, while others prohibit alcohol consumption altogether. Many Christian denominations such as Catholic, Orthodox, and Lutheran use wine as a part of the Eucharist and permit the drinking of alcohol but consider it sinful to become intoxicated. In the Bible , the book of Proverbs contains several chapters dealing with the bad effects of drunkenness and warning to stay away from intoxicating beverages.
The book of Leviticus tells of Nadab and Abihu, Aaron the Priest's eldest sons, who were killed for serving in the temple after drinking wine, presumably while intoxicated. The book continues to discuss monasticism where drinking wine is prohibited. The story of Samson in the Book of Judges tells of a monk from the tribe of Dan who is prohibited from cutting his hair and drinking wine.
Some Protestant Christian denominations prohibit the drinking of alcohol  based upon Biblical passages that condemn drunkenness,  but others allow moderate use of alcohol. In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , alcohol consumption is forbidden,  and teetotalism has become a distinguishing feature of its members.
Jehovah's Witnesses allow moderate alcohol consumption among its members. In the Qur'an ,    there is a prohibition on the consumption of grape -based alcoholic beverages, and intoxication is considered as an abomination in the Hadith. Islamic schools of law Madh'hab have interpreted this as a strict prohibition of the consumption of all types of alcohol and declared it to be haraam "forbidden" , although other uses may be permitted.
In Buddhism, in general, the consumption of intoxicants is discouraged for both monastics and lay followers. Many followers of Buddhism observe a code of conduct known as the five precepts , of which the fifth precept is an undertaking to refrain from the consumption of intoxicating substances  except for medical reasons. In the branch of Hinduism known as Gaudiya Vaishnavism , one of the four regulative principles forbids the taking of intoxicants, including alcohol.
In Judaism , in accordance with the biblical stance against drinking,  wine drinking was not permitted for priests and monks  The biblical command to sanctify the Sabbath day and other holidays has been interpreted as having three ceremonial meals which include drinking of wine, the Kiddush.
But it has been customary and in many cases even mandated to drink moderately so as to stay sober, and only after the prayers are over. During the Seder night on Passover Pesach there is an obligation to drink 4 ceremonial cups of wine, while reciting the Haggadah. It has been assumed as the source for the wine drinking ritual at the communion in some Christian groups.
In the s due to the new beverages law, a rabbi from the Reform Judaism movement proposed using grape-juice for the ritual instead of wine. Although refuted at first, the practice became widely accepted by orthodox Jews as well. At the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron —the Ibrahimi Mosque as it is called by the Muslims, the Jewish wine drinking rituals during weddings, the Sabbath day and holidays, are a cause for tension with the Muslims who unwillingly share the site under Israeli authority.
In the movie Animals are Beautiful People , an entire section was dedicated to showing many different animals including monkeys, elephants, hogs, giraffes, and ostriches, eating over-ripe marula tree fruit causing them to sway and lose their footing in a manner similar to human drunkenness.
In elephant warfare, practiced by the Greeks during the Maccabean revolt and by Hannibal during the Punic wars , it has been recorded that the elephants would be given wine before the attack, and only then would they charge forward after being agitated by their driver. It is a regular practice to give small amounts of beer to race horses in Ireland. Ruminant farm animals have natural fermentation occurring in their stomach, and adding alcoholic beverages in small amounts to their drink will generally do them no harm, and will not cause them to become drunk.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Drunk disambiguation. Beer portal Drink portal Medicine portal. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 24 May American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. Handbook of clinical neurology.
European journal of internal medicine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". Drugs, Crime, and Justice. Social, Cultural, and Historical Perspectives. An invitation to health Brief [ed]. A Clinical Approach , 2nd ed. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: A Clinical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment.
Fact Sheets - Binge Drinking". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 7 June British Journal of Pharmacology. An increasingly exciting topic". A new target site of ethanol". The Journal of Neuroscience. Retrieved 25 June Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. J Intensive Care Med. Catastrophic Injuries in Sports and Recreation: A Canadian Study 2 ed. University of Toronto Press.